Anime

Animation (Japanese: ア ニ メ, IPA: [aɲime] (about this listening to audio)) are hand-drawn animation from Japan. Anime, a term that is derived from the English word for animation, in Japanese describes all animation work, regardless of its style or origin. Outside of Japan, animation refers particularly to animation produced in Japan or its popular style, which has since been adopted by a minority of works produced in other countries. [1]

anime

The first commercial Japanese animation dates back to 1917. A distinct artistic style emerged in the 1960s with the work of cartoonist Osamu Tezuka and spread over the following decades, building a large national audience. The anime is distributed theatrically, through television broadcasts, directly to local media, and over the Internet. In addition to the original works, the animations are usually based on Japanese comics (manga), light novels, or video games. They are categorized into many genres targeting various broad and specialized audiences.

Animation is a versatile medium with distinct production styles that have been adapted in response to emerging technologies. It combines graphic arts, characterization, cinematography and other forms of imaginative and individual techniques. [2] Compared to Western animation, animation production generally focuses less on movement and more on setting details and using “camera effects” such as panning, zooming, and angle shots. . [2] Different artistic styles are used and the proportions and characteristics of the characters can vary completely.

The animation industry is made up of more than 430 production companies, including major studios such as Studio Ghibli, Gainax, and Toei Animation. Since the 1980s, the medium has achieved international success with the emergence of dubbed and subtitled programs abroad. As of 2016, Japanese animation made up 60% of the world’s animation TV programs.

Animation began in Japan in the early 1900s, when filmmakers began experimenting with pioneering technologies in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia. [9] Claim of Katsudo Shashin of Early Japanese Animation (c. 1907), [13] the private work of an unknown creator. [14] In 1917 the first professional works began appearing and shown to the public. Animators such as Ōten Shimokawa, Seitarō Kitayama, and Jun’ichi Kōuchi (considered “anime fathers”) have produced many films, the earliest being Namakura Gatana by Kuuchi. [15] Many early works were lost with the destruction of the Shimokawa Depot in the Great Kant Earthquake of 1923. [16]

By the mid-1930s, animation was well established in Japan as an alternative form of the live-action industry. It suffered competition from foreign producers, such as Disney, and many animators, including Noburō Ōfuji and Yasuji Murata, continued to work with cheaper cut animators than torrent animators. [17] Other creators, including Kenzō Masaoka and Mitsuyo Seo, have made great strides in the technology, taking advantage of government sponsorship, which has hired animators to produce educational and publicity short films. [18] In 1940, the government dissolved several artists’ organizations to form Shin Nippon Mangaka Kyokai. [A] [19] The first Toki anime was Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka (1933), a short film produced by Masaoka. [20] [21] The first anime feature film was Momotaro: Holy Sailors (1945), produced by Seo with the sponsorship of the Japanese Imperial Navy. [22]

Momotaro: Sacred Sailors (1945), the first anime feature film
The 1950s saw the proliferation of short animated advertisements made in Japan for broadcast television. [23] In the 1960s, manga artist and animator Osamu Tezuka adapted and simplified several Disney animation techniques to cut costs and limit the number of frames in his production. [24] Originally, he intended it as a temporary measure that would allow him to produce materials on a tight schedule with inexperienced staff, although many of his limited animation practices would come later to define the style of the medium. [25] Three Tales (1960) was the first anime television film. [26] The first animated television series was Instant History (1961-1964). [27] Astro Boy (1963-1966) was an early and influential success, a television series directed by Tezuka based on the manga of the same name. Several animators from Mushi Production in Tezuka have created major studios (like Madhouse, Sunrise, and Pierrot).

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